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· 3 min read
Michael Karg

Setup

As part of the release benchmarking cycle, we're comparing benchmarking runs for 3 different versions of cardano-node:

  • 8.1.2 - the last mainnet release
  • 8.7.0-pre - as an intermediate reference point
  • 8.7.2 - the next mainnet release

For each version, we're gathering various metrics under 2 different workloads:

  1. value-only: Each transaction consumes 2 inputs and creates 2 outputs, changing the UTxO set. This workload produces full blocks (> 80kB) exclusively.
  2. Plutus: Each transaction contains a Plutus script exhausting the per-tx execution budget. This workload produces small blocks (< 3kB) exclusively.

Benchmarking is performed on a cluster of 52 block producing nodes spread across 3 different AWS regions, interconnected using a static, restricted topology. All runs were performed in the Babbage era.

Observations

These benchmarks are about evaluating specific corner cases in a constrained environment that allows for reliable reproduction of results; they're not trying to directly recreate the operational conditions on Mainnet.

The observations stated refer to the direct comparison between the 8.1.2 and 8.7.2 versions.

Resource Usage

  1. Plutus workload, having a lower overall absolute CPU load, exhibits an average increase of 27% in Process CPU usage. Value workload, having a higher overall absolute CPU load, exhibits a near-jitter increase of 1%.
  2. Allocation rates increase by ~8.9MB/s (value workload) and ~12.6MB/s (Plutus workload).
  3. Heap sizes increase by 47% - 54%.
  4. CPU 85% span duration shrinks by ~9.7 slots under value workload, and ~5.8 slots under Pluts workload.

Caveat: Individual metrics can't be evaluated in isolate; the resource usage profile as a whole provides insight into the system's performance and responsiveness.

Forging Loop

  1. Block Context Acquisition in the forging loop increases by ~10ms.
  2. Mempool snapshotting shows an increase by 16ms under value workload; under Plutus workload, it increases by 3ms.
  3. Ledger ticking improves slightly by 1-2ms.

The metric 'Slot start to announced' (see in attachements) is cumulative, and demonstrates how far into a slot the block producing node first announces the new header.

Peer propagation

  1. Block fetch time increases for full blocks by 9%. For small blocks, it improves by 7%.
  2. Time to resend a block after fetching increases by 8% for full blocks, whereas it improves by 2% for small blocks.
  3. Block adoption by a peer takes 12% more time for a full block, but happens faster by 4% for a small block.

End-to-end propagation

This metric encompasses block diffusion and adoption across specific percentages of the benchmarking cluster, with 0.80 adoption meaning adoption on 80% of all cluster nodes.

The metric exhibits an increase by ~10% across all centiles for full blocks, whereas it improves by 5-6% for small blocks in the higher (80th and above) centiles.

Contact

This is the first time we're publishing, to a wider audience, such benchmarking results. We are aware that more context and detail may be needed with regard to specfic metrics or benchmarking methodology.

We are looking to gather questions, both general and specific, so that we can provide a suitable FAQ and possibly improve presentation in the future.

Attachments

Full report for value-only workload, PDF downloadable here.

Full report for Plutus workload, PDF downloadable here.

The relese benchmarks for 8.7.2 were performed on tag 8.7.1-pre, which features identical cardano-node components.

· 3 min read
Michael Karg

Setup

As part of the release benchmarking cycle, we're comparing benchmarking runs for 3 different versions of cardano-node:

  • 8.7.2 - baseline for previous mainnet release
  • 8.8.0 - an intermediate reference point
  • 8.9.0 - the next mainnet release

For each version, we're gathering various metrics under 2 different workloads:

  1. value-only: Each transaction consumes 2 inputs and creates 2 outputs, changing the UTxO set. This workload produces full blocks (> 80kB) exclusively.
  2. Plutus: Each transaction contains a Plutus script exhausting the per-tx execution budget. This workload produces small blocks (< 3kB) exclusively.

Benchmarking is performed on a cluster of 52 block producing nodes spread across 3 different AWS regions, interconnected using a static, restricted topology. All runs were performed in the Babbage era.

Observations

These benchmarks are about evaluating specific corner cases in a constrained environment that allows for reliable reproduction of results; they're not trying to directly recreate the operational conditions on Mainnet.

The observations stated refer to the direct comparison between the 8.7.2 and 8.9.0 versions.

Resource Usage

  1. Overall CPU usage exhibits a small to moderate (5% - 8%) increase.
  2. Memory usage is very slightly decreased by 1%.

Caveat: Individual metrics can't be evaluated in isolate; the resource usage profile as a whole provides insight into the system's performance and responsiveness.

Forging Loop

  1. For full blocks, Mempool Snapshotting improves by 4% (or 3ms).
  2. For small blocks, Self Adoption times improve by 8% (or 4ms).
  3. All other forger metrics do not exhibit significant change.

The metric 'Slot start to announced' (see in attachments) is cumulative, and demonstrates how far into a slot the block producing node first announces the new header.

Peer propagation

  1. For full blocks, Block Fetch duration shows a notable improvement by 10ms (or 3%).

End-to-end propagation

This metric encompasses block diffusion and adoption across specific percentages of the benchmarking cluster, with 0.80 adoption meaning adoption on 80% of all cluster nodes.

End-to-end propagation times on 8.9.0 exhibit a small improvement by 2% across all centiles for full blocks, whereas they remain largely unchanged for small blocks.

Conclusion

  • The performance changes observed between 8.9.0 and 8.7.2 are only minor - with 8.9.0 slightly improving on 8.7.2. Therefore, we'd expect 8.9.0 Mainnet performance to be akin to 8.7.2.
  • We have demonstrated no performance regression has been introduced in 8.9.0.

Contact

As for publishing such benchmarking results, we are aware that more context and detail may be needed with regard to specfic metrics or benchmarking methodology.

We are still looking to gather questions, both general and specific, so that we can provide a suitable FAQ and possibly improve presentation in the future.

Attachments

Full report for value-only workload, PDF downloadable here.

Full report for Plutus workload, PDF downloadable here.

NB. Mainnet release 8.7.3 did not include any performance-related changes; measurements taken on 8.7.2 remain valid.

· 3 min read
Michael Karg

Setup

As part of the release benchmarking cycle, we're comparing benchmarking runs for 2 different versions of cardano-node:

  • 8.9.0 - baseline for previous mainnet release
  • 8.9.1 - the next mainnet release

For each version, we're gathering various metrics under 2 different workloads:

  1. value-only: Each transaction consumes 2 inputs and creates 2 outputs, changing the UTxO set. This workload produces full blocks (> 80kB) exclusively.
  2. Plutus: Each transaction contains a Plutus script exhausting the per-tx execution budget. This workload produces small blocks (< 3kB) exclusively.

Benchmarking is performed on a cluster of 52 block producing nodes spread across 3 different AWS regions, interconnected using a static, restricted topology. All runs were performed in the Babbage era.

Observations

These benchmarks are about evaluating specific corner cases in a constrained environment that allows for reliable reproduction of results; they're not trying to directly recreate the operational conditions on Mainnet.

Resource Usage

  1. We can observe an overall decrease in CPU usage (2% - 4%); only GC CPU usage under value workload increases by 3%.
  2. Under value workload only, Allocation rate is very slightly decreased (1%) with no change to Heap Size.

Caveat: Individual metrics can't be evaluated in isolate; the resource usage profile as a whole provides insight into the system's performance and responsiveness.

Forging Loop

  1. Mempool Snapshot duration increases slightly by 2ms under value workload.
  2. Self-Adoption time increases by 3ms.
  3. All other forger metrics do not exhibit significant change.

The metric 'Slot start to announced' (see in attachments) is cumulative, and demonstrates how far into a slot the block producing node first announces the new header.

Peer propagation

  1. Under value workload only, Block Fetch duration and Fetched to Sending show a slight increase of 2ms each.

End-to-end propagation

This metric encompasses block diffusion and adoption across specific percentages of the benchmarking cluster, with 0.80 adoption meaning adoption on 80% of all cluster nodes.

End-to-end propagation times on 8.9.1 exhibit a small increase by 1% - 2% for full blocks, while remaining virtually unchanged for small blocks.

Conclusion

  • The performance changes measured between 8.9.1 and 8.9.0 are very minor. Mainnnet performance of 8.9.1 is expected to be akin to 8.9.0.
  • We have not observed any performance regression being introduced in 8.9.1.

Contact

As for publishing such benchmarking results, we are aware that more context and detail may be needed with regard to specfic metrics or benchmarking methodology.

We are still looking to gather questions, both general and specific, so that we can provide a suitable FAQ and possibly improve presentation in the future.

Attachments

Full report for value-only workload, PDF downloadable here.

Full report for Plutus workload, PDF downloadable here.

· 3 min read
Michael Karg

Setup

As part of the release benchmarking cycle, we're comparing benchmarking runs for 2 different versions of cardano-node:

  • 8.9.1 - baseline from a previous mainnet release
  • 8.9.3 - the current mainnet release

For each version, we're gathering various metrics under 2 different workloads:

  1. value-only: Each transaction consumes 2 inputs and creates 2 outputs, changing the UTxO set. This workload produces full blocks (> 80kB) exclusively.
  2. Plutus: Each transaction contains a Plutus script exhausting the per-tx execution budget. This workload produces small blocks (< 3kB) exclusively.

Benchmarking is performed on a cluster of 52 block producing nodes spread across 3 different AWS regions, interconnected using a static, restricted topology. All runs were performed in the Babbage era.

Observations

These benchmarks are about evaluating specific corner cases in a constrained environment that allows for reliable reproduction of results; they're not trying to directly recreate the operational conditions on Mainnet.

Resource Usage

  1. Under value workload, CPU usage increases slightly on 8.9.3: 4% for Process, 3% for Mutator and 8% for GC.
  2. Additionally, Allocation rate and minor GCs increase slightly by 3% each.
  3. Under Plutus workload only, the GC live dataset increases by 10% or 318MB.
  4. CPU 85% spans increase by 14% of slot duration under value workload, whereas they shorten by 5% of slot duration under Plutus workload.

Caveat: Individual metrics can't be evaluated in isolate; the resource usage profile as a whole provides insight into the system's performance and responsiveness.

Forging Loop

  1. There are no significant changes to metrics related to block forging.

The metric 'Slot start to announced' (see in attachments) is cumulative, and demonstrates how far into a slot the block producing node first announces the new header.

Peer propagation

  1. Block Fetch duration improves by 7ms (or 2%) under value workload, and by 4ms (or 3%) under Plutus workload.
  2. Under Plutus workload, Fetched to sending improves by 2ms (or 5%).

End-to-end propagation

This metric encompasses block diffusion and adoption across specific percentages of the benchmarking cluster, with 0.80 adoption meaning adoption on 80% of all cluster nodes.

  1. Under value workload, cluster adoption times exhibit a minor improvement (1%) up to the 80th centile on 8.9.3.
  2. Under Plutus workload, we can observe a minor improvement overall (1% - 2%), whilst full adoption is unchanged.

Conclusion

  • The performance changes measured between 8.9.3 and 8.9.1 are very minor, with 8.9.3 improving slightly over 8.9.1.
  • Mainnnet performance of 8.9.3 is expected to be akin to 8.9.1.
  • We have not observed any performance regression being introduced in 8.9.3.

Contact

As for publishing such benchmarking results, we are aware that more context and detail may be needed with regard to specfic metrics or benchmarking methodology.

We are still looking to gather questions, both general and specific, so that we can provide a suitable FAQ and possibly improve presentation in the future.

Attachments

Full report for value-only workload, PDF downloadable here.

Full report for Plutus workload, PDF downloadable here.

NB. The baseline for 8.9.1 had to be re-established due to changes in the underlying network infrastructure. This means, absolute values may differ from the previous measurements taken from that version.

· 3 min read
Michael Karg

Setup

As part of the release benchmarking cycle, we're comparing benchmarking runs for 2 different versions of cardano-node:

  • 8.9.3 - baseline from a previous mainnet release
  • 8.12.1 - the current mainnet release

For each version, we're gathering various metrics under 2 different workloads:

  1. value-only: Each transaction consumes 2 inputs and creates 2 outputs, changing the UTxO set. This workload produces full blocks (> 80kB) exclusively.
  2. Plutus: Each transaction contains a Plutus script exhausting the per-tx execution budget. This workload produces small blocks (< 3kB) exclusively.

Benchmarking is performed on a cluster of 52 block producing nodes spread across 3 different AWS regions, interconnected using a static, restricted topology. All runs were performed in the Babbage era.

Observations

These benchmarks are about evaluating specific corner cases in a constrained environment that allows for reliable reproduction of results; they're not trying to directly recreate the operational conditions on Mainnet.

Resource Usage

  1. Under value workload, CPU usage is improved by 2% - 4%, and by 14% for GCs. Under Plutus workload, CPU usage improves only slightly by 1%.
  2. Allocation Rate and Minor GCs improve by 5% and 6% - under Plutus workload, there's a slight improvement of 1%.
  3. RAM usage is reduced by 3%; reduction under Plutus workload is even larger - namely 10%.

Caveat: Individual metrics can't be evaluated in isolate; the resource usage profile as a whole provides insight into the system's performance and responsiveness.

Forging Loop

  1. Mempool snapshotting improves by 5ms or 7% (3ms or 4% under Plutus workload).
  2. Adoption time on the block producer improves by 4ms or 6% - under value workload only.

The metric 'Slot start to announced' (see in attachments) is cumulative, and demonstrates how far into a slot the block producing node first announces the new header.

Peer propagation

  1. Block Fetch duration increases slightly by 6ms or 2% (2ms under Plutus workload).
  2. Adoption times on the peers improve slightly by 2ms or 3% (1ms under Plutus workload)

End-to-end propagation

This metric encompasses block diffusion and adoption across specific percentages of the benchmarking cluster, with 0.80 adoption meaning adoption on 80% of all cluster nodes.

  1. Under value workload / full blocks there are no significant changes to cluster adoption times.
  2. Under Plutus workload / small blocks we can observe a (near-jitter) improvement of 0% - 2% in cluster adoption times.

Conclusion

  • The performance changes measured between 8.12.1 and 8.9.3 are most distinct in the resource usage footprint - with 8.12.1 improving over 8.9.3.
  • On Mainnnet, 8.12.1 is expected to deliver equal or slightly better performance than 8.9.3 - as well as lowering the Node's resource usage somewhat in doing so.
  • We have not observed any performance regression being introduced in 8.12.1.

Contact

As for publishing such benchmarking results, we are aware that more context and detail may be needed with regard to specfic metrics or benchmarking methodology.

We are still looking to gather questions, both general and specific, so that we can provide a suitable FAQ and possibly improve presentation in the future.

Attachments

Full report for value-only workload, PDF downloadable here.

Full report for Plutus workload, PDF downloadable here.

NB. The release benchmarks for 8.12.1 were performed on tag 8.12.0-pre. The patch version bump did not include changes relevant to performance; thus, measurements taken on 8.12.0-pre remain valid.

· 4 min read
Michael Karg

Setup

As part of the release benchmarking cycle, we're comparing benchmarking runs for 2 different versions of cardano-node:

  • 8.12.1 - baseline from a previous mainnet release
  • 9.0.0 - the current mainnet release

For each version, we're gathering various metrics under 2 different workloads:

  1. value-only: Each transaction consumes 2 inputs and creates 2 outputs, changing the UTxO set. This workload produces full blocks (> 80kB) exclusively.
  2. Plutus: Each transaction contains a Plutus script exhausting the per-tx execution budget. This workload produces small blocks (< 3kB) exclusively.

Benchmarking is performed on a cluster of 52 block producing nodes spread across 3 different AWS regions, interconnected using a static, restricted topology. All runs were performed in the Conway era.

Observations

These benchmarks are about evaluating specific corner cases in a constrained environment that allows for reliable reproduction of results; they're not trying to directly recreate the operational conditions on Mainnet.

Resource Usage

  1. Under value workload Process and Mutator CPU usage are slightly higher on 9.0 - 7% - 8% (4% each under Plutus workload). GC CPU is increased by 11%, but decreases under Putus workload by 3%.
  2. Only under value workload, Allocation Rate and Minor GCs increase by 5% and the live GC dataset grows by 3%. Heap size is constant.
  3. CPU 85% spans are 8% shorter (3% under Plutus workload).

Caveat: Individual metrics can't be evaluated in isolate; the resource usage profile as a whole provides insight into the system's performance and responsiveness.

Forging Loop

  1. Mempool Snapshotting and Self Adoption time on the block producer increase very slightly under value workload - 2ms (or 3%) each.
  2. Under Plutus workload, however, a decrease in Self Adoption time by 2ms (or 4%) is the only significant change in the forging loop.

The metric 'Slot start to announced' (see in attachments) is cumulative, and demonstrates how far into a slot the block producing node first announces the new header.

Peer propagation

  1. Block Fetch duration is 21ms faster (6%) - 7ms or 5% under Plutus workload.
  2. Fetched to Sending increases slightly by 3ms (7%) - only under value workload.
  3. Adoption times on the peers increase slightly by 4ms (5%) - under Plutus workload, however, they are 3ms (6%) faster.

End-to-end propagation

This metric encompasses block diffusion and adoption across specific percentages of the benchmarking cluster, with 0.80 adoption meaning adoption on 80% of all cluster nodes.

  1. Under value workload / full blocks on 9.0, we can observe a 4% - 5% improvement of cluster adoption times in the 80th centile and above.
  2. Under Plutus workload / small blocks, the corresponding improvement is 5% - 6%.
  3. The main contributing factor is the improvement in Block Fetch duration.

Conclusion

  • Network performance clearly improves by ~%5 for 80% to full cluster adoption - independent of workload.
  • RAM usage is unchanged on 9.0. The slight rise in CPU usage is expected, given improved network performance, and does not pose cause for concern.
  • We have not observed any performance regression being introduced in 9.0.0..

NB. These benchmarks were performed in the Conway ledger era. As such, they do not cover the one-time performance cost of transitioning from Babbage and enabling the new features of the Conway ledger.

Contact

As for publishing such benchmarking results, we are aware that more context and detail may be needed with regard to specfic metrics or benchmarking methodology.

We are still looking to gather questions, both general and specific, so that we can provide a suitable FAQ and possibly improve presentation in the future.

Attachments

Full report for value-only workload, PDF downloadable here.

Full report for Plutus workload, PDF downloadable here.

NB. The release benchmarks for 8.12.1 were performed on tag 8.12.0-pre. The patch version bump did not include changes relevant to performance; thus, measurements taken on 8.12.0-pre remain valid.